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The recommended way to do this is through ArcGIS and not through external/third party tooling. There are many factors involved and it would be very hard in my opinion to custom create your own replication process without compromising data integrity. Specifically, the file geodatabase's .lock files that you mention are part of the file geodatabase design and it is very dangerous to copy these files when the geodatabase is in use. Data corruption will eventually occur. See this article for more information on the topic.
Also, I would recommend taking some time to read through Esri's documentation on this subject to get a better understanding of what the best solution would be for your needs.
Thanks for the response Jason but the problem is not as simplistic as you are implying. ".lock" files are not just used within a geodatabase anymore they are also used for locking shapefiles. We utilize a combination of both types of spatial data making the scenarios you described impossible to deploy. The second problem is that the geodatabase "synchronization" within ArcGIS does not appear to be designed for real-time continuous syncing. Thank you for your input as I do see additional problems that could occur with the replication of the geodatabases. We may have to look into virtualization of applications as a different avenue.