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One easy way to do this is to use www.arcgis.com - ArcGIS Online, and add the world geologic layer or better yet, search for a geologic layer in Italy on ArcGIS Online, and then manually add your point data on the ArcGIS Online map or via a spreadsheet with lat-long values saved as TXT or CSV, and then map those points by adding the spreadsheet, and saving your ArcGIS Online map. If you need more rigorous analysis, then ArcGIS for Desktop is probably where you want to do the work, although even with desktop you can add base maps from ArcGIS Online.
There are several GIS and Archaeology books available, such as:
Spatial Technology and Archaeology: The Archaeological Applications of GIS. By David Wheatley and Mark Gilling. Published in 2002 by Taylor & Francis.